Teachings And Sayings

Teachings And Sayings

(1) Teachings

Gharib Nawaz used to give Discourses on various subjects. Those present used to hear him with rapt attention. These Discourses have been preserved and they serve as a lesson in spiritualism and mysticism. His words are as true today as they were when they were uttered first.

Duty to Serve Spiritual Guide

Once Gharib Nawaz pointing towards Khawaja Qutub Saheb said: “When I came in close contact with Hazrat Khawaja Usman Harooni and subsequently I became his spiritual disciple I passed eight years in such a way that I took no rest or respite.

“I renounced all comforts. My sole concern was as how best to please him by my devotion and service. When His Holiness used to under take a journey, I used to carry on my head his bedding and tiffin-basket and thus used to accompany him.

“My Pir-o-Murshid (Spiritual Guide) appreciating and recognising my services, and being pleased with me, at last conferred upon me such gifts which can neither be described nor circumscribed. I am thankful to him for all his gifts and kindness.”

After wards he said: “Whoever gained anything gained by service. A spiritual disciple should, under no circumstance, hesitate in canying out the commands of his Spiritual Guide. Whatever he may suggest-prayers and any routine, the disciple should pay his fullest attention to it and should, undoubtedly, practice it. The spiritual disciple should, by earnestly following and obeying his Spiritual Guide, try to reach the place where the Spiritual Guide himself becomes the comb of his disciple.

“It should be taken to heart that whatever the Spiritual Guide persuades his disciple to do and to practise, it is for the benefit of the spiritual disciple himself.”

Continuing his Discourse he said: “Shikh Shahab-ud-Din Saharwardy served his Pir-o-Murshid very devotedly and faithfully. He used to accompany his Pir-o-Murshid on pilgrimage and used to carry his luggage on his head. And on return journey he did likewise.

“At last, by virtue ofhis devotion and service ofhis Spiritual Guide, he got such blessings and gifts which are limitless and beyond description.

“The people cannot ever understand what the Sheikh got and what benefit he derived from his Spiritual Teacher.”

Obligation to God

One day, addressing all those present, he said that Imam Abul Laith of Samarqand has in his book, entitled Teera, written:

“Every day there descend from the sky two angles. One of them cries saying, ‘0 people! listen to me, and know it fully well that the one who does not fulfil his obligations to God, becomes surely deprived ofHis Mercy.’

“The other angel cries saying, “He, indeed alienates the sympathy and support of Prophet Muhammad, who does not follow him’.”

Cleanliness

At another time he emphasised that one should sleep clean, as the one who sleeps like this, on him are showered the blessings ofGod. To the one sleeping thus God appoints a special angel to remain with him till he awakes. The angel prays for his salvation.

Routine after Morning Prayer

He dwelt on the advantages of sitting on the praying carpet after the morning prayers. The one who sits thus and offers thc prayersjust after sunrise Will be admitted to Heaven. And if there are seventy people with him they all will find the gates of Heaven open to them.

Necessity of Prayer

At another meeting, addressing those present, he said that prayer is the great necessity for the development of soul. Prayer is a secret and a mystery, which man confides to God. Except in prayer there is no other opportunity available ofexpressing one’s own secret (to God). Prayer for the people is a trust of God. The men then should try to acquit themselves well.

Stages to Reach God

Those in search of God have to pass thrnugh four stages. The first stage is that of Shari’at. The next stage is that of Tariqat, and the third stage is that of Ma’rifat. When one has proved himself deserving and acquitted himself well, and when

he has been constant and firm, then alone he reaches the fourth stage, namely, that ofHaqiqat. Once he has reached that stage he gets what he asked for. At this time Gharib Nawaz pointed out that he heard a Darvish saying that the enlightened is one who renounces both the worlds and frees himself thus.

Charity Enjoined

Once he said that the one who feeds the hungry, indeed, earns for himself blessings. His act of charity in feeding the hungry creates seven curtains between himself and the hell.

False Oath Deprecated

At another time he said that the one who swears falsely brings evil and disgrace, not only on himself but also on other inmates of his household. The house then is deprived of the blessings of God.

Prayers at the Right Time

Some six people from Samarkand were sitting when Maulana Baha-ud-Din ofBukhara reached Gharib Nawaz. In the meanwhile, Ohad-ud-Din ofKirman also reached. The topic under discussion was that the offering of prayers should not be delayed.

Thereupon Gharib Nawaz said that those Believers are really to be pitied who do not offer prayers at the right time and woe to them who do not follow in the worship of God.

Loud Laughter Disallowed

Once the topic under discussion was laughter. Gharib Nawaz objected to loud laughter and added that loud laughter is one of the sins itself. One should not laugh at all in a graveyard. Graveyard, it should be remembered, is place where one can learn a lesson. It is not a place for merry-making.

Gharib Nawaz deprecated eating, drinking and merry-making in a graveyard, for the Holy Prophet Muhammad has said that the one who eats and drinks in a graveyard is, no doubt, sordid, mean and debased.

A bstinence from People Necessary

Once he said: “0 dear one! The more you are engrossed in worldly affairs and worldly men, the more remote you are from God. If you are so much busy in your appointed task, namely, Remembrance ofGod, as you are in worldly affairs, then so much the better for you. The closer you come with the people of the world the more detached you are from God.”

Equipment for Journey

Once he said that we all have to go on the Great Journey. We should all try to equip ourselves properly for the same.

The Faithful not to be Injured

According to Gharib Nawaz, there is perhaps no greater sin committed than causing injury without reason to the Faithful. To do so is surely to displease the Holy Prophet Muhammad.

Receptive Heart a Virtue

Once Gharib Nawaz said that if after hearing the name of God and reading the Holy Quran, One’s heart is not softened, and one’s faith is not strengthened but instead he continues to indulge in merrymaking, then no doubt it is one of the major sins. One who rises to it is a Faithful and one Who falls from the standard is a traitor.

Blessings of Divine Love

At another meeting Gharib Nawaz said that once Ibrahim Khawas happened to pass some place where people were absorbed in the Remembrance of God. When Ibrahim heard the name of God, he lost his senses, and thus unconscious began to dance.When he used to recover he would call out aloud the name of God and then again relapse into unconsciousness.

For full seven days and seven nights he was in such a state. Having recovered consciousness he made ablutions and having offered prayers bowed down his head and said, “0 God!” After this he did not raise his head again and died thus.

Venerated Objects Described

Gharib Nawaz said in the presence of Sheikh Jalal and Hazrat Muhammad Wahhad Chishti and others that to see six things is a prayer for the mystic. They are: Firstly, to see one’s own parents in the morning, and to make a salaam o them respectfully.

Secondly, to see one’s own children with love, blessing and affection is a better type of prayer.

Thirdly, to see the Holy Qur’an is itself a prayer. Every possible respect should be shown to the Holy Qur’an.

Fourthly, it is also prayer to see the face of the learned men’ with respect.

Subsequently, he said that he who has in his heart the love of, and regard for, the learned ones, God the Almighty confers upon him the reward of a thousand years’ prayers.

The may die in the meanwhile, then God bestows upon him the rank of the learned one.

Fifthly, it is good to see the gate of Kaaba. To see Kaaba is itself a sort of prayer.

The Holy Prophet Muhammad has said that to start with the idca of seeing the Kaaba is a sort of prayer. One who sees the Kaaba gets a reward of thousand years ‘ prayer and of Hajj . He is counted as one amongst the saints.

Sixthly, to see towards the face of one’s own spiritual teacher and to be devoted in his service, is known as “Marifatul-Mureedain.”

Hazrat Sheikh Usman Harooni once said: that ifone serves one’s spiritual Teacher as affectionately and as devotedly as one may, one will get, as reward, a thousand palaces of pearls in Heaven.

It is imperative upon the spiritual disciple that whatever he may hear from his spiritual Teacher and Guide he should be very attentive to it. Whatever prayers and routine he may prescribe he should perform them to his utmost.

One should be with one’s spiritual Teacher and serve him very devotedly and faithfully. If one may not be able to do so continuously then one should do, at least, to one’s utmost capacity and to the best of one’s means and circumstances.

Obedience to God

Gharib Nawaz says: “that if one wished to protect oneself from hell-fire, one should try todischarge one’s duties of worship and prayer to God. It should be remembered that there is no better thing before God than prayer.

Hazrat Qutub Saheb thereupon asked, “What type of prayer was that?” Gharib Nawaz replied that that prayer consists in hearing the complaints of the aggrieved and to assist them; to help the needy and the oppressed, to feed the people and to get free the captives from captivity. All these things, Gharib Nawaz emphasised, are of great importance.

Stages of Spiritual Evolution

There were present Sheikh Wahhad-ud-Din of Kirman, Sheikh Wahid Burhan Ghaznawi, Khawaja Sulaiman, Abdur Rehman and some other Darveshes.

Gharib Nawaz led the conversation by saying that some people have described hundred stages of spiritual evolution and out of hundred seventy stages are set apart for supernatural powers. So the one who has crossed the few stages thereof reached such great height as if he has reached the seventy-three stages.

The wayfarer in’ this particular path should not exhibit his supernatural powers unless and until he has crossed the seventy stages. But, continued Gharib Nawaz, it is better that he should exhibit supernatural powers only after he has crossed the hundred stages.

Subsequently, Gharib Nawaz said that some people belonging to the Chishti Order have fixed fifteen stages ofspiritual evolution and out of fifteen there are five stages pertaining to supernatural powers. “Our Chishti Khawajas are ofopinion,” proceeded Gharib Nawaz,’“that the one who treads this path should not stop in the five stages alone but he should, with courage and determination, cross all the fifteen stages.

“Afterwards, he should exhibit his supernatural powers, so that he may be counted as perfect among the perfect ones.”

Gharib Nawaz says: “that the mystics in this connection have said that once Hazrat junaid of Baghdad was asked as to why he did not implore for His Glorious Vision. It was not impossible for him to have His Vision.

He replied: “Moses implored but he did not get it. The Holy Prophet Muhammad did not ask for it, but got it. Since a man does not know as to what is good and what is bad for him it is better than he should surrender himself to His will. If God so wills He will give him the thing desired, provided he deserves it. The curtains out of themselves will be removed and he will see the Divine Light. God then will show His Hidden Glories, if He wills; why then should I ask for it?”

Secret of Hazrat Bayazid of Bustam

Gharib Nawaz said: “that one day when Khawaja Bayazid Bustami reached closer to God he heard a voice to the effect that “To-day is a day ofblessing. This is the time to ask for something. Ask what thou mayst.” Hazrat Bayazid bowed low and submitted:

“I know nothing of Thy Will. So to ask for something is impertinence, sure and simple. To be merciful and generous is the wont of the kings. Thou art, indeed, the Supreme Lord and Sovereign. 0 my God! I accept gladly whatever Thou mayst bestow.” A voice came out: “0 Bayazid! We have given thee the world Hereafter.”

He submitted: “0 the Giver of Bounties without Measure! this is a prison-house for friends.”

Again a voice came out to the effect that “We have given thee the Paradise, the Hell, the Throne and the Chair.”

The voice came out again, “Tell Us, what then is thy desire.”

He replied: “0 the Knower ofHidden Secrets! Thou knowest fully well as to what I desire.”

Then, an affectionate voice addressed him thus: “0 Bayazid! thou keepest Me alone in love and is only desirous of life. If, 0 Bayazid! I ask from thee only, what wouldst do.”

Hearing this, Khawaja Bayazid submitted: “I swear by Thy Glory, if Thou mayst ask of me, then on the Day of judgment, going to the Hell-fire I will, with one sigh make that fire cold like ashes, so that it may become non-existent.”

The voice came out: “0 Bayazid! thou hast found thy purpose. Thou are gainer, indeed.”

Bibi Rabia ‘s Divine Love

Gharib Nawaz says: “that one night Bibi Rabia of Basra feeling distracted cried out: “I am burnt, I am burnt.” The people of Basra hearing this ran up to her. They discussed among themselves as to how the fire should be put out.

Amongst them there was a saintly man too. He said to the people: “0 ye people! you have not experienced such a sort of fire. This is the fire ofthe love ofthe Friena which is killed in the heart ofRabia. 0 ye people! you cannot extinguish this fire. Such a fire is extinguished only when the lover is united with the Beloved. Now, in the heart of Rabia the Friend is making His Own Abode. He is about to come. This pain and distraction is caused by the separation of the Friend. As soon as the Friend comes, all this pain will vanish by itself.”

Gharib Nawaz says that somebody asked Hazrat Mansur as tcwhat is the highest point in the love of the Friend. He replied tlit: a lover has nothing to do except to bow his head in submission. All good and evil emanate from the Friend. He should accept all with delight. 1-le should do nothing against the Will ofthe Friend. Alall times he should be prepared to carry out the wishes of the Fiiend. He should obey Him implicitly. Moreover, he should be soLbsorbed in the vision ofthe Friend that he should be oblivious cfFiis religion and faith. This is undoubtedly a higher stage.

Absorption in the Vision ofihe Friend

Gharib Nawaz says: “that once he saw a lover who was sitting in a monastery in Baghdad. A hundred whips were inflicted 1_ipUn him, but he appeared to be quite unaware and unconscious cf it.

A saintly man inquired from him as to how he was feeling. He replied: “My Friend was before me. I know nothing of anything. I was absorbed in the Glorious Vision ofmy Friend.”

Imam Ghazzali is said: “to have described the story of an offender, whose hands and feet were cut off in the market of Baghdad. The man continued laughing. A certain person inquired from him the reason of his laughing at such a time of pain, sorrow, and humiliation. He replied: “My Friend was before my eyes. I was so much absorbed in His Vision that I did not know as to what happened and neither I felt any pain. I do not know how and when it happened.

Divine Education

Gharib Nawaz then said: “that a mystic used to say that whatever exists in the world, we are that one. Nothing is apart from us. The idea is not to sacrifice oneselfupon oneself, otherwise the earth and the sky and all that is within will be shattered to pieces.

At this time, being enamoured of love, Gharib Nawaz said that he wished that he should see Him, but he does not want to see Him, for a man should not desire or wish for anything. Thereupon, a saintly man said that he has adopted a very easy course in that he has given up all. When he at last reached a point close to Him, what he had given up knowing it to be worthless he got it back all by the grace of God.

Gharib Nawaz said: “that he met a Dervesh who said that he had renounced like a snake which throws off its outer skin, And when he pondered over it he reached the conclusion that the lover and the beloved are, indeed, one and the same. All this is the Glory of One, i.e. the One saw the One.

Gharib Nawaz says: “that Bayazid Bustami once said: “Thirty years ago I was in God. Now I see the mirror, i.e. whatever I was I am no more. The dual character is removed, ‘We’ and ‘I’ are no more pronounced differently. Now God is my mirror. God speaks through my tongue, I exist no more.”

Moreover, continued Gharib Nawaz, Hazrat Bayazid also used to say: “For a considerable long time I have been in that place and what I got is woe and suffering. When I came out of that place I felt no pain, for the people of the world are absorbed in the world and there are others who seek the world Hereafter. The pious are contented with their piety. Many there are who are passing their days of life in eating, drinking, merry-making and dancing. But there is undoubtedly a small minority which is respectfully devoted and absorbed in the service of God, the Almighty.

Once Hazrat Bayazid of Bustam was asked as to how far did his knowledge extend in the realm ofspiritualism. He replied: “So far I have been able to reach that stage where, when I see in between the two fingers, then I see all the world thereto and all that is in the world,”

Rabia Basri’s Love,

Gharib Nawaz says: “that once Rabia Basri out of love said:

“O Great God! if people may burn my heart with fire and I may be patient and persevering over it even then I will not be able to acquit myself of Thy Love. I shall have nothing to do if Thou mayst pardon my sins as well as ofall the people ofthe world.”

Terms Explained

Gharib Nawaz says: “that a saintly man explained the meaning of”non-existence” and “to be everlasting” thus: “When I took the world to be my enemy and severing my relations with the people of the world I paid fullest uninterrupted attention to the Creator then the love of God so overwhelmed me that I took even myself as my enemy. I found death removed from in- between. Then I derived the pleasure ofeverlasting life. The love of God then became manifest to me.”

Mission ofthe Lovers Explained

Gharib Nawaz says: “that on the Day ofjudgment the lovers will receive the command of God to enter Paradise. They-the lovers-will submit that what have they to do with the Paradise. The Paradise should be given to those who have prayed and remembered Him for the sake of Paradise.

Continuing Gharib Nawaz said: “Those who have surrendered their will to God have undoubtedly, nothing to do with Paradise and its comforts. Their only object is nothing but the Friend.”

Gharib Nawaz added further that one should, possibly, try to know the secret of everlasting life. If not, it is better for one to be devoted to piety: Concluding Gharib Nawaz said with tears in his eyes, that many people found themselves helpless in that path and many a helpless one was made to traverse this path by no other than saints.

Gharib Nawaz says: “that no sin is greater and more harmful than inflicting an injury giving harm to and putting to disgrace one’s own brother Musalman;

Gharib Nawaz says: “that Hazrat Zunnun of Egypt used to say: “A mystic who shuns from the people and has acquired the Divine vision becomes silent and quiet. This is, indeed, a characteristic by which the perfect mystics are recognised.”

Seclusion Necessary

Gharib Nawaz says: “that once Shah Shuja of Kirman was asked as to when did he come to know God. He replied: “From the time I avoided people and took to seclusion,”

Gharib Nawaz says: “that a saintly man used to say: ‘The people ofthe world are incapable to tread in the way ofGod. The saints are delighted and are joyfully absorbed in the love of the Friend. The God illuminated men, on the other hand, are all Light.

“This is a secret, known only to the perfect mystics. The prayer of the God-illuminated men is indeed Pas Anfas ( Commemoration Cordis).

Gharib Nawaz says: “that the religious dignitaries having vast knowledge to their credit will have no knowledge, learning or piety with them on their entering the Paradise. But, in spite of this, the godly men and the saints will carry with them even in heaven their characteristic mark of “Love”.

Gharib Nawaz says: “that he has heard his spiritual Guide, Hazrat Khawaja Usman, as saying that when the mystics succeed in the friendship of God, then whatever there is in the world remains no more hidden from their eyes.

Renunciation

Gharib Nawaz says: “that once Khawaja Abdullah forgot and devoted himself to worldly affairs. All of a sudden it came to him that what he was doing would bring on him wrath of the Friend. He at once made a vow that so long as he was alive he will never take to worldly affairs. Consequently during the long span of fifty years he never took interest in worldly affairs.

Bayazid Bustami ‘s Spiritual Ecstasy

Gharib Nawaz says: “that once Hazrat Bayazid Bustami felt himself obliged to make a retreat to a desolate place in Bustam. The love ofGod, in his heart, became intensified. Thus enamoured cf intense love he said: “There is love, coming out from every branch, leafand root ofthe tree, from every fruit and from every stone-nay from everything. I wished to come out from the Kingdom cf Love, but I could not.”

Gharib Nawaz quotes Khawaja Samnun Mohib as saying:

“Love ever lives in the heart of saints. They are absorbed in the inner prayer and worship. There is none else beside them, who can carry the burden of love. They are the people, indeed, who have nothing to do with outward prayers, rituals, or ascetic life, but they are the people given to devotion and contemplation.”

Influence of Society of Man Many a Darvesh was present. The topic under discussion was the influence of society on man.Gharib Nawaz quoted the Holy Prophet Muhammad as saying: “The influence of society on man is great beyond any shadow of doubt.

“If a bad man associates himself with the good, he himself ultimately becomes good. On the contrary, the good man associates himselfwith the bad his association results in his becoming bad.

“In short, whosoever got, got by society. Whosoever got advice, got it from the good.” Continuing Gharib Nawaz said: “The saints have expressed their opinion in clear and simple words that the society of the good is better than doing good work; whereas the society of the bad is worse than doing bad work.”

Khawaja Gharib Nawaz says: “that somebody inquired from Khawajajunaid as to what does love mean in the spiritual domain, and what does it result in. He replied that the net result of love is that God the Almighty confers honour, prestige and leadership on the lover. He creates in his heart the intense desire of seeing His Glorious Vision. The one, so imbibed with Love, never does any act which may separate him from God. Whosoever thus pleases God makes God his Friend. The heaven then is anxious to have a glimpse of him the lover.

Gharib Nawaz says: “that he had seen it written with the pen of his own teacher, Maulana Sharf-ud-Din, that once it was inquired from Khawaja Shibli as to why he prayed so much. Was it due to fear?

He replied: “Yes, it is the fear of two things. Firstly, I fear lest God may remove me from His Nearness. I cannot bear it.

“Secondly, ifl am able to carry with me at the time of death my own faith safely, then so far so good; otherwise all my acts of devotion and prayer will be fruitless.”

Afterwards, Gharib Nawaz said: “that a certain man came to Hazrat Shibli, and having paid him his respects, inquired about the secrets of love and requested him to explain the meaning of forgiveness.

Hazrat Shibli replied: “To commit sin with the hope that he will be excused for the same is indeed forgiveness.”

Then he was asked as to what is the result of enlightenment, He replied that the result of it is that a man becomes close to God. He becomes silent and often he is sorry and sad. This in fact is the hall-mark of the saint.

Gharib Nawaz says: “that once Hazrat Khawaja Zunnun of Egypt was sitting in the Kakri Mosque. There were present some mystics also. A Sufi inquired as to who in fact an inspired Sufi is. Hazrat Zuimun, thereupon, replied : “There are the people who have effaced from their heart the rancour ofjealousy and enmity, characteristic ofman. Not a remnant remains in their heart of the desire for and love of the world. They only take respite on reaching a high pedestal.

“Then, throwing off the love of the people, they imbibe in their heart the love of God alone. They do not look towards anyone else. Under such circumstances they become masters of themselves and everything becomes subordinate to them.”

Continuing he said: “Mysticism is a name and not a knowledge. The saints and the Sufis breathe nothing but love; for to be a spiritual disciple means to avoid the people and to love God-the Creator. By merely knowing and learning mysticism, one does not become a Sufi.”

Gharib Nawaz continuing said: “The God-illuminated man is an enemy of the world and indeed a friend of God. The God- illuminated man disdains the world, for there is nothing in the world except enmity andjealousy. Consequently, the one devoted to the world is far from God.”

Somebody inquired from Gharib Nawaz as to why a God- illuminated man weeps so much. Gharib Nawaz replied that in the path ofspiritual illumination one can see everything. When a man reaches close to God and he derives the pleasure of union, then of course he stops weeping.

Continuing Gharib Nawaz said: “that God has made His lovers content and happy by His Friendship and Love. Due to this they are silent and devoted to God alone. They have nothing to do with the desires and pleasures of life. They are not aware of the things of the world. They are the people of lofty ideals.

Proceeding further, Gharib Nawaz said: “that the one whose heart is absorbed in the love of God, does not feel restless. So it is incumbent upon the lover of God that he should be indifferent to both the worlds. If he acts otherwise. he is then not a true lover.

Continuing his Discourse, Gharib Nawaz said: “that once when Hazrat Dawood Tai came out of his tenement then he had his eyes closed. Coming out thus he stood still.

A Darvesh inquired from him as to why he had his eyes closed. He replied that for the last forty-five years he had his eyes closed for this very reason that he might not see anyone else except the Friend. For to see anyone else except the Friend is contrary to the fundamental principles of love.

Further, he added that a saintly man once said: “that on the Day of judgment God will order the angels to examine and scrutinise the actions of the saints, and also to study the reason oftheir loving anyone else besides Him. The angels, he continued, will be commanded also to elicit the reason of their claiming to love Him alone whereas they felt comforted and delighted in the love of someone else besides Him.

Gharib Nawaz says: “that Khawaja Abu Saeed Abul Khair used to say that when God makes someone His friend then He bestows upon him His Love. Once he imbibes the love ofHis, he tries to identify himself with Him. At last, He draws the friend towards Him, so that he may become one with Him.

. Love of God

Gharib Nawaz says: “that once he saw a saintly man absorbed in the thought ofthe Friend. He was blind. On being asked as to the duration of his blindness he replied thus

“When my Friend showed me kindness and I reached such a stage where I used to see the Beauty and the Glorious Vision of the One Unparalleled, it so happened one day that, by chance, I cast a glance at the one other than Him. I heard a voice saying, ‘0 woe to thee, who professes love to Us, and simultaneously gives a place to a stranger in thy eyes! On hearing this voice, I felt ashamed beyond words. I prayed to God that the eye which may see anyone else besides Thee, should become bereft of sight. My prayer had not yet concluded when all of a sudden I became blind.”

Continuing Gharib Nawaz said: “that when God brought

Adam into existence He said to him: “Pray, i.e. remember Me in thy heart. Know Me to be present in thy body. Give place to My Love in thy head, I have produced thee for this purpose, that thou inayst know Me, glorify Me and love Me.”

Gharib Nawaz, at this time, also described the story of a mystic who bowed low in adoration successively many a time and prayed thus: “0 God! raise me blind from my grave on the Day of Resurrection.” Somebody remarked that it was a strange type of prayer. He replied that the one who happens to see the Friend should not cast a glance at a stranger on the Day of Resurrection.

The Result of Hospitality

Gharib Nawaz then described the story ofa God illuminated Darvesh who used to distribute, whatever he got, amongst the Darveshes. He used to live in his hut and let no one go deprived.

Once two mystics, who had attained perfection, came to him and asked for water. The Darvesh went into his hut and came out with two breads and a cup of water. Both the Darveshes, on a visit to him, were hungry also. They took the bread and drank water.

Afterwards, the one looked at the other and said: “This Darvesh has done his part well, indeed. Now, we should do something for him.” One of them said: “Let us give him this world.” The other replied: “Ifgiven the world, he will indulge in sin.” Then, “He is given the world to earn the world Hereafter,” was the unanimous verdict of the two Darveshes.

Consequently, they prayed and departed. The Darvesh, however, was enabled to reach such a position that he used to distribute one maund of food daily to the indigent and the poor.

Gharib Nawaz says that once Khawaja Hassan ofBasra was asked to define the enlightened. He replied: “The enlightened is one who has nothing to do with the world and whatever he has he distributes, out oflove ofthe Friend, amongst the poor and the needy.”

Right Conduct Orined

Gharib Nawaz, dwelling on the mutual love and sincerity of Darveshes, says: ‘0 dear one! blessed are those Darveshes of this time who bit together and show to each other mutual love and sincerity; for thus, they acquire inner puritJ. Bad, indeed, are those Darveshes who do not meet each other ad keep themself aloof. Remember, this is a bad thing.”

Khawaja Samnun ‘s Description ofLove and Its Effect

Gharib Nawaz then continuing his Discourse in this very meeting said: “that once Hazrat Khawaja Samnun Mohib was describing love that all of a sudden a bird dropped from the air, sat on his head, and afterwards it came down and sat on the hand, and then, lastly, sat on the ground and began to rub.

dead.

At last, blood came out from its mouth and it dropped down The Nature and Type of Trust in God Discussed

There were present Maulana Baha-ud-Din, Sheikh Wahhadud-Din of Kirman and some other Darveshes. The theme of the conversation was the type oftrust reposed by the God-illuminated in God. Gharib Nawaz said that their trust in God should be such that they need not seek help from anyone, nor they should look towards any one nor they should pay any attention to anyone except God-the Supreme, Omnipotent and Omnipresent.

Gharib Nawaz then narrated the story of Hazrat Ibrahim Khalil-Ullah, who was asked by angel Gabriel as to what he wanted. He replied that he had nothing to do with him; when God knows all, why should he then demand anything from anyone else?

Elucidation of Trust in God

Proceeding further, Gharib Nawaz said: “that Khawaj a Junaid was asked to define a God-illuminated man. He replied thus: “He (the God-illuminated man) is one whose heart refuses to repose trust on three things: firstly, Knowledge; secondly, Action and thirdly, Seclusion. So long as a man reposes his trust on the three aforesaid things, his trust in God is not perfect.”

Signs of God-illuminated Man

Gharib Nawaz says: “that a saintly man was asked to lay down the signs of a God-illuminated man. He replied: “He is, indeed, a God-illuminated man who does not love anyone else besides God and who does not see anyone else except God.”

Continuing Gharib Nawaz said: “that he had also heard from a saintly man that unless he possesses three distinguishing characteristics, he does not deserve to be called a God-illuminated man. Firstly, he should keep the idea of death uppermost in his mind; secondly, he should derive pleasure by the Remembrance

of God in times of stress and trouble; thirdly, he should feel restless at the time of the coming of his Friend, and when in meditation he should see God and God alone.

Two Good Things in the World

Gharib Nawaz says that he had heard from Sheikh Shahab ud-Din Umar Saharwardy that there are two exceedingly good things in the world, namely, the society of the mystics, and the respect shown to the saints.

Fulfillment of Promise Enjoined

The Holy Prophet Muhammad has said that he is the weakest among men who does not stick to his words.

The Story of Adam Recalled

Describing the story of the fall of Adam, Gharib Nawaz said: “that when the wrath ofGod fell on Adam then his stick and everything else besides wept except silver and gold. God asked as to why they did not weep. Both of them submitted: “Why should we weep for one who has incurred Thy Displeasure?” God said thereupon: “I swear by My Glory and Might that I will make manifest your utility, grandeur arLd power to the children of Adam. I will make them your slaves.”

Mystic Interpretation of Time,

Gharib Nawaz says: “that once Hazrat Junaid of Baghdad was asked as to what is consent in love. He replied that it is such that if the seven hells be placed upon the right hand of the lover, he may not even say this much that they should have been placed upon his left hand. Then he was asked as to what is the primary duty of man. He replied that it is knowing God.

Proceeding he said: “God has so ordained that things are hidden in things and everything has veiled vision.”

God’s Favour on His Friends

Gharib Nawaz says: “that it is so written in Israr-ul-Aulia that when God will bring to life His friends on the Day of Resurrection, He will lighten up their faces. So it is that the Holy Prophet Muhammad saw God through God. There was no limit of tiJie and space. His (God’ s) presence is far above space and attrilDDtes. There is nothing but God all-pervading.

Lovers on the Day of Judgment

Harib Nawaz says: “that the Day ofJudgment is a certainty. On tli4 day when the true lovers will be called and ifat that time sonieone amongst the lovers cried out establishing his claim to be a lovcr ofGod he will, undoubtedly, thereby forfeit his claim of beiragincere and constant in love, He will feel ashamed. He will have 1) hide his face from the true lovers. A voice will come out to tbeeffect: “These claimants oflove are not real lovers. Remove them from amongst Our Lovers.”

Effect of Service of God

Charib Nawaz says: “that once Hazrat Malik Dinar was askedabout the service ofGod. He replied that the one who takes to ti-ic service of the Friend ultimately gets united with the Friend

Mystery of Love,

Gharib Nawaz says: “that a Darvesh was seen dead but smiling in a jungle. Asked the reason of it he replied that such is the mystery of love.

Query to Bibi Rabia and Her Reply

Gharib Nawaz says: “that once Bibi Rabia of Basra was asked as to what is the best action. She replied that it is to be constant in keeping good time. One who claims to be pious is a liar. He indeed is alive in love who annihilates his own desires and this unites himself with God. He is then called by the name given 1y God Himself. God remembers him by the title of friend but he does not reply except with prayers. Amongst those taken to love, there is no name and no custom indeed.

Gharib Nawaz says: “that he had heard his spiritual Guide, Hazrat Khawaja Usman Harooni, as saying: “that the mystics do not love anyone except the Friend for the one who feels delighted with a stranger, undoubtedly, brings to himself sorrow and pain. The one who does not love God gets entangled in many kinds of worries. One who is not absorbed in Friend is, undoubtedly, less than a particle of dust.

Types of Repentance

Gharib Nawaz says: “that repentance is ofthree kinds, so far as the mystics are concerned. Firstly, to eat less in order to fulfil the obligation offast; secondly, to sleep less in order to worship; and thirdly, to speak less in order to pray.

First comes fear, next comes hope and last comes love. Under the caption of fear comes the avoidance of sin so that hell-. fire may be avoided. Under hope comes the necessity of prayer in order to get paradise and desire to reach destination in order to achieve immortal life. Under love comes contemplation in order to get the Divine Pleasure.

Instructions for a Disciple

Baba Farid Ganj Shakar quotes Hazrat Khawaja Qutub-udDin Kaki as saying: “that once he was offering genuflexions and when thus in prayer he was called by his spiritual Teacher, Hazrat Khawaja Moeen-ud-Din Hasan Chishti. He, on hearing the call, at once replied: “Coming, Sir.” When he went to him, he asked him as to what he was doing. Thereupon he submitted that he was offering genuflexions and that on hearing his call, giving up prayers, he rushed to him.

Thereupon Gharib Nawaz said: “You did well. Better than genuflexions is the act that you did. It is of utmost importance in the spiritual domain that one should, repose implicit confidence and faith in one’s Spiritual Teacher.”

(2) His Sayings

The sayings of Gharib Nawaz are many and varied and cover, practically, every aspect of mysticism. They serve as a useful guide. It is not possible to narrate all ofthem here, but we give below a few selected ones.’

The lover’s heart is a fireplace of love. Whatever comes in

is burnt and becomes annihilated. There is no fire greater in its intensity than the fire of love.

The noise ofthe lover is only up to the time when he has not seen his Beloved. Once he sees the Beloved he becomes calm and quiet, just as the rivers are boisterous befoie they join the ocean, but when they do so they are becalmed for ever.

To be obedient to, and afraid of, the Friend is the sign of love, indeed.

To acknowledge and to claim do not go together.

Whatsoever he wishes comes before the Enlightened, and to whomsoever he talks he gets the reply.

The Enlightened is ever steeped in the love ofthe Friend. if he stands it is out ofGod’s love; Ifhe sits, he is busy in prayers; when he sleeps his thoughts are fixed on Him, and when he awakes His memory is fresh in his mind.

He, indeed, is constant and firm in love who voluntarily, and with delight, accepts all trouble and pain received from the Friend.

The Enlightened is one whose heart is stranger to all love save that of God.

The Enlightened becomes perfect only when all else is removed from in-between him and the Friend. Either he remains or the Friend.

The pinnacle of the Enlightened it that he may ever feel restless in the love of the Friend.

The Enlightened is one who removes from his heart all else so that he may become one particularly single like his Friend.

The Enlightened is one whose morning is unacquainted with his nightly words and deeds. His meditation must be so deep as to dispel, every memory of the past.

The Enlightened is one who receives every day from the All High a hundred thousand visions, and in every minute a few thousands. He thus receives spiritual ecstasy every moment.

The Enlightened is one who, if he may receive a hundred thousand visions, may not disclose them at all.

To produce in him the Attributes of God is indeed the humblest thing that the Enlightened can do. The greatest thing that the Enlightened can do is to make the one who comes before him with a claim guilty by his own spiritual powers.

The Enlightened is one who acquires all knowledge, gives myriads of meanings, and every time dips deep in the ocean of meaning so that he may take out from it the jewel of the secret ofDivine Light; he may show such ajewel to the expert jewellers so that they may like him and may come to know of him as also one amongst the Enlightened.

The Enlightened is one who is indifferent to both the worlds- this world And the world Hereafter.

The Enlightened does not repose his trust in anybody except God. Accordingly, he does not pay his attention to anyone else besides God.

The trust reposed by the Enlightened in God is such as if he is bewildered.

It is characteristic ofthe Enlightened that he is ever smiling. When he smiles the angels come before him and seeing the angels continues smiling.

The contented is one, indeed, who does not complain to aariybody of any grievous wrong, pain or sorrow caused by the

The Enlightened showers like the sun his rays oflight on all tbe world. The whole world is lit bright by his light.

The eyes of the perfect Enlightened see all that is in one’she hall-mark of the Enlightened is this that he keeps dear to hi heart the death, renounces pleasures of life and derives ccmbrt and solace by the Remembrance of God alone.

There are three things which go to make one Enlightened, nainIy, fear, respect and shyness. Fear to him means that he is everand anon ashamed of his shortcomings; respect to him mais that he devotes himselfexciusively to prayers; and shyness to hin means that he does not cast his looks on anybody else except God, the All-Pervading.

rhe least thing that the Enlightened does is that he disdains wea1th and splendour.

The Enlightened is an enemy of the world and a friend of Gcd.. That is why he renounces the world and is above the trifles of life.

The Enlightened is one who does not implore from anybody an>’ help except from God.

The Enlightened does not keep in his heart anything except Rexiembrance ofGod. Ifthe one who realises God does not shun pecple of the world, then indeed he is not blessed.

A spiritual disciple should follow his spiritual teacher faithfully and devotedly. He should carry out the behests of his spiritual teaczer so that he may attain perfection.

A Darvesh should be so close to God that God may give him whatever he may want. If not, then he is not entitled to be called a Drvesh.

One who wants to be safe from the fire of hell and the fear of the Day of Resurrection should obey God. He should obey Him in such details which are superior to any prayer, namely, to do justice to the aggrieved, to help the helpless, and to feed the hungry. Whosoever got any blessing got by generosity, indeed.

The repentance ofthe lovers is ofthree kinds. Firstly, shame; secondly, avoidance of sin; and, thirdly to purify themselves by purging cruelty and enmity from within themselves.

The pious one is ever lost in the love of God. If he stands it is out ofGod’s love and ifhe sits, he is busy in prayers. When he sleeps his thoughts are fixed on Him and when he awakes His Memory is fresh in his mind.

Those indeed are the lovers of God who, if they offer morning prayers, are continuously in the thought ofthe Friend till the next morning prayers.

The Enlightened is one who does not keep anything dear to his heart except the Remembrance of God.

There is a time in the life of the contented when they are enamoured of love alone. If then they are torn asunder they are quite unaware of it.

There are such lovers of God whom the love of God has made quiet to an extent that they do not know whether there is anything else existing in the world.

The one whose heart is enamoured of the Love of God does not look in any direction in both the worlds. And if he does he forfeits his claim to be a true lover.

He, indeed, is the true lover ofGod who renounces from his heart the idea of both the worlds.

He alone is the true lover of God who may severe his bond of love from his parents, brothers and sons, and may devote himself exclusively to God and His Prophet.

He is a true lover who welcomes with delight the sorrows and pain, received from his Friend.

The spiritual disciple deserves to be called a Darvesh only when he lives in the world of non-existence.

When one comes on the path of love of the Friend, one becomes non-existent.

In the world there is nothing better than the Society of the my-tics and the respect shown to the saints.

The lovers of God hear the talk of the Friend directly.

The heart of the Enlightened should be such that it may efface everything and may be exclusively devoted to the Glorious Vision of the Friend.

It is through prayer that the service of God is acquired.

He indeed is in a prison-house who claims to be pious.

Be ever prepared for death.

One who has love in his heart does not feel the least troubled by poverty, hunger or asceticism.

There are ten things necessary for a Darvesh, namely, search of God, search of spiritual teacher, respect, surrender, love, piety, constancy and perseverance to eat less, to sleep less, seclusion and last of all prayers and fast.

For the mystic also there are, likewise, ten things necessary, which are as follows:

(1 ) To be perfect in Divine knowledge.

(2) To be neither sorry and sad himself nor to make others sorry and sad and nor to think evil of anybody.

(3) To point the way towards God and to lead and guide the people towards the Ultimate Good.

(4) To be hospitable.

(5) To prefer seclusion.

(6) To pay respect and regard to everyone and to count himself as the humblest and the lowest.

(7) To surrender his will to the Will of God.

(8) To be patient and persevering in every grief and woe.

(9) To be humble and meek.

(10) To be contented and to repose his trust in God.

(3) His Letters

Some of the following letters, written by Khawaja Gharib

Nawaz, and addressed to his chosen spiritual disciple, premier

Caliph and spiritual successor Hazrat Khawaja Qutub-ud-Din

Bakhtiar Kaki, are reproduced below.2

The letters are the treasure-house of mysticism and contain very many suggestions. They are inspiring, stimulating and thought-provoking.

(1)

The knower ofDivine knowledge, the lover ofGod, my brother Khawaja Qutub-ud-Din Saheb of Delhi. Know this well that among the people of the world they,

indeed, are the wisest who have taken to mysticism and renunciation, because here the object is to have no object, and to lose object is to gain object. Contrary to this those in ignorance have taken happiness as trouble and treated trouble as happiness.

So he, indeed, is the wisest who upon the mere thought of some worldly object renounces it then and there and accepts Faqr (Piety), and renunciation as his ultimate goal.

Thus, renouncing and forgoing all his desires, he finds

himself in accord with renunciation.

“Unless thou art in a position to renounce how can’t thou

reach thy goal?”

It is then incumbent upon an individual that he should be

devoted to God alone Who is Everlasting and Eternal.

If God may be pleased to give eyes to one, one should see

nothing except Him, the All Pervading. Whatsoever he may see

in both the worlds, one may find the Great Reality hidden therein.

Eve particle of dust is a cup wherein all the world can be seen.

What more should I write except the eagerness to meet you.

(2)

My sincere friend and my brother Khawaja Qutub-ud-Din

Dehiavi

May God give you blessings of both worlds!

Salaams to you from this humble being Moeen-ud-Din.

I hereby write to you a few points ofDivine Mystery for the guidance of your sincere disciples and Seekers of Truth so that they may not fall in eor.

My dear! one who has come to realise God does not ask for anything and renounces all his desires and wishes.

The one who has not realised God cannot understand such people.

Secondly, it is necessary to renounce greed and avarice. The one who has done so attains the object. Of such a man, God says:

“One who has controlled one’s passions, one’s place is, undoubtedly, in heaven.”

The heart which God has switched off from Himself should be wrapped up iii the coffin of passions and be buried deep beneath the ground of shame.

One day awaja Bayazid Bustami said: “One night I saw

God in a dream. He asked me, ‘0 Bayazid! what does thou want?” I replied: ‘Whatever Thou wishest.’ Thereupon God said:

‘Well then, as thou art Mine, so I am thine’.”

“One who keeps his neck (of submission) upon His Will.

“No doubt God looks after (him).”

One who wants to understand and appreciate the secrets and implications ofmysticism should close the door ofcomfort upon oneself and then sit cross-legged being enamoured of love.

One who has done this indeed becomes a mystic.

The Seeker of Truth should then practise these precepts with all his heart and soul. God willing he will be saved from the clutches of Satan and will get fulfilled the desires of both the worlds.

One day my spiritual guide and teacher said to me thus:

o Moeen-ud-Din! Dost thou know as to who is ever close to God? He, indeed, is close to God who is ever steeped in His submission, intemrets eveiy event as coming from God, is content with it and takes it as a blessing.

“This is the main object of all prayers and worship.

“One who attains this stage is, undoubtedly, king of the world but it will be coect to say that the king ofthe world is his

beggar.”

One day my spiritual guide and teacher addressing me said thus:

“Some Darveshes are of opinion that the seeker when once

he attains perfection is no more perturbed. This view is erroneous.”

Secondly, those who hold that prayers and worship are no more necessary for him distort truth because the Holy Prophet was always and ever engaged and devoted to prayers, worship and submission and in spite ofhis perfect attainments he used to say, “We have not prayed, as we should have done” i.e. could not pray to our best.

Humbly he used to declare:

“I affirm that there is no god but God and this-Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.”

You should know that when the Enlightened attains the stage ofperfection then at that time he performs the difficult task of the highest order which means prayer with utmost sincerity.

Thus through this he attains Nearness and Vision, and it will be correct to say that this prayer forms the Chief Ascension.

When once a man knowing it proceeds with sincerity then lie feels so much thirsty as if he has taken several cups of fire.

The more he will take such cups the more thirsty he will feel because the Glory Unlimited has no limits. At that time his harmony becomes disharmony and his comfort becomes discomfort unless he feels honoured by the Glorious Vision ofGod. Salaams.

(3)

The Perfect Enlightened, Knower of Truth, Lover of God, Brother Khawaja Qutub-ud-Din Kaki Ooshi.

Din.

May God increase your piety!

Salaams to you from your humble well-wisher Moeen-ud

O dear one! You must tell your disciples as to what is actually meant by a perfect Darvesh, what are his distinguishing marks and how he is to be recognised.

The eminent Sheikhs have said: “that a Darvesh is he who is above all worldly needs and who does not hanker after anything except His Everlasting Beauty because the whole world is a minor and manifestation of his Everlasting Beauty. Hence he sees his object in all.

Some saints have explained this thus:

“A perfect Darvesh is he, indeed, who removes from his heart the stain, stress and burden ofanything, and everything, and gives place in his heart to God alone, who does not pursue any other object or desire except God Himself.

When all things other than God are effaced and removed from heart then alone the object is achieved.

So the seeker should ever and anon pursue faithfully and diligently his object.

Now it is necessary to know as to what is meant by aim and object. You should know that the object is the same pain and pangs whether it be real or otherwise.

Here the non-real pain is the beginning of the mandates of the Islamic Code. Salaams to you.

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